A contraction is a shortened form of a word or group of words, with the missing letters usually marked by an apostrophe. The forms like It’s, won’t, hasn’t, I’m etc. are called contractions. Contractions are not used in formal writing, they are used in speech and in informal writing.
There are two types of contractions:
1)Contractions which have the structure of ‘Auxiliary verb + not’. Examples:
- I can’t do this. (can’t= cannot)
- I wouldn’t do this. (won’t= would not)
- I shouldn’t do this (shouldn’t= should not)
- I won’t do this (won’t= will not)
- I haven’t done this. (haven’t= have not)
- It isn’t working. (= is not)
2) Contractions which have the structure of Noun / pronoun / etc + auxiliary verb/modal auxiliary verbs. Examples:
- I’m working. (I am working.)
- She’s eaten. (She has eaten.)
- They’ve decided. (They have decided.)
- Where’s John? (Where is John?)
- Nobody’s busy. (Nobody is busy.)
- She’s in hurry. ( She is in hurry.)
- There’s a medicine shop. (There is a medicine shop.)
- I’d love to spend some time with you. (I would love to spend some time with you.)
- You’re looking great. (You’re looking great.)
- She’ll not come. (She will not come.)
- The modal verbs ‘May’ and ‘Shall’ do not forms contraction. (Shall forms contraction in British English, not in American English.
- The contraction ‘s means has and is.
- The contraction ‘d means would and had.